Kingdom of Tondo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tondo
Kahariang Tundun or Kaharian ng Tondo
(Kingdom of Tondo)

Former Philippine Kingdom

Flag of Tondo

Tondo, also referred to as TundoTundunTundok, (Chinese characters: 東都) was a Philippine fortified kingdom whose capital was located in the Manila Bay area, specifically north of the Pasig river, on Luzon island. It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines’ earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. Originally an Indianized kingdom in the 10th century, Tondo initiated diplomatic ties with China during the Ming Dynasty, and thus became a dominant force in regional trade. (SeeLuções). Its regional prominence in trade and alliance with Brunei‘s Sultan Bolkiah in 1500 led to its peak age as a thalassocraticforce in the northern archipelago. When the Spanish first arrived in Tondo in 1570 and defeated the local rulers in the Manila Bayarea in 1591, Tondo came under the administration of Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of Kota Seludong), ending its existence as an independent state. This subjugated Tondo continues to exist today as a district of the city of Manila.

Notable monarchs of Tondo

The Spanish advent (1570–1591)

Spanish colonizers first came to the Manila Bay area and its settlements in June 1570, while Governor-General Legazpi was searching for a suitable place to establish a capital for the new territory. Having heard of a prosperous Muslim settlement on the island of Luzon, Legaspi had sent Martin de Goiti to investigate. When Maynila’s ruler, Rajah Sulaiman II, refused to submit to Spanish sovereignty, De Goiti attacked. He eventually defeated Soliman, claimed Maynila in the name of the King of Spain, then returned to report his success to Legazpi, who was then based on the island of Panay.

Legazpi himself returned to take the settlement on June 19, 1591. When the Spanish forces approached the natives burned Maynila down and fled to Tondo and other neighboring towns.

Legaspi began constructing a fort on the ashes of Maynila and made overtures of friendship to Rajah Lakandula of Tondo, who accepted. The defeated Sulaiman refused to submit to the Spaniards, but failed to get the support of Lakandula or of the Pampangan and Pangasinan settlements to the north. When Sulaiman and a force of Tagalog warriors attacked the Spaniards in the battle of Bangcusay, he was finally defeated and killed.

This defeat marked the end of rebellion against the Spanish amongst the Pasig river settlements, and Lakandula’s Tondo surrendered its sovereignty, submitting to the authority of the new Spanish capital, Manila.

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